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q&a page 20

967) Q: People say that Rashi's daughters put on Tefilin.  Is there a source for this?

A: ​Though I have heard this as well, I am not familiar with a credible source for this.


Though there have been women who donned Tefilin, such as Michal bas Kushi (See Talmud Eiruvin 96a and see Tosefos there. This should not be done nowadays by any women, as it's against the accepted Mesorah etc. and not what Hashem wants), it is very unlikely that Rashi's daughters did so, as Rashi was of the opinion that women may not do any Mitzvos Asei Shehazman Grama, and doing so would be Bal Tosif (See Rashi to Rosh Hashana 33a dibur hamaschil Hanashim MeAkvim)

968) Q: When learning. I often like to bookmark any interesting I want to come back to. Is bending the page or adding a bookmark permitted on shabbos?


A: There is no halachic issue with folding the page of a sefer on Shabbos to save its place, according to most Poskim. Other non-adhesive bookmarks are permitted as well. Some Poskim have an issue with adhesive bookmarks, especially if being left there beyond 24 hours.


Some question if there is an issue of Hachana, preparing for after Shabbos, if the place-holder is to come back to it after Shabbos, but most Poskim reject this issue, as it can be viewed again on that Shabbos as well.


Some Poskim frown upon this method even during the week, as they feel it is disrespectful to the Sefer, but other Poskim allow it, and feel it is in fact considered standard practice, and kavod to the sefer that we want to remember its words and come back to them. 


Of course, if the Sefer is not yours, and is borrowed from someone else or belongs to a Shul, this should not be done as the owner may not appreciate you ruining his sefer. (See Shu"t Rivevos Efraim Vol. 1 Siman 223:11. See also Shemiras Shabbos K'Hilchasa Perek 28:16 )

969) Q: I'm in a discussion with someone who claims that it's OK to steal from an Aino-Yehudi.  I looked it up and on the surface it seems she's possibly right. However, isn't it a chilul Hashem which is forbidden. I'm interested in clearing this up because it gives this person a negative impression about Torah chas vshalom.

A: Geneivas Akum, Stealing from an Aino Yehudi is 100% prohibited, and may even be a worse sin than stealing from a Jew. (See Shulchan Aruch Choshen Mishpat Siman 348:2, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Siman 182:1 and Ben Ish Chai Parshas Ki Seitzei.)

“If one steals from a Aini Yehudi, swears falsely and dies, his death is no atonement for his sin because of Chillul Hashem” (Tosefta Bava Kamma, 10 quoted in a fascinating, must read essay on Chilul Hashem written  by Rav Shimon Schwab Zatzal , and printed in the Jewish Observer in 1988, which can be seen via this link:,  page 8).

Ta’us Akum, where Aino Yehudi made a mistake in your favor, is where it may be permissible, if no Chilul Hashem is involved.

970) Q: Pas Shachris.Is this a Halacha or 'simply' recommended advice? Must it be fulfilled with bread or is mezonos,fruit or a drink good as well? Is it possible to mention benefits for fulfilling this important inyan?


A: ​The Shulchan Aruch Siman 155:2 writes that it’s a “good idea to get used to eating Pas Shacharis”.

“Pas Shacharis” is literally translated as “Morning bread”.


The Mishna Berura (S”K 11) explains that the Gemara Bava Metzia 107b tells us that there are 83 sicknesses that are avoided/cured via eating “Pas Shacharis”, and since it’s a Mitzvah to guard one’s health, it’s important to eat this breakfast meal. (See Shu”t Shevet Haleivi Vol. 4 Siman 16 that while it is a good idea to eat breakfast, not doing so is not a sin)

Some Poskim say that this “Pas Shacharis” needs to be bread, while others say it can be any mezonos item, such as a cereal made from the 5 grains (See Pri Megadim; Mishbetzos Zahav Siman 155 S”K 1), or a pastry.


Others say it can be any filling food, even if it isn’t Mezonos. Some even say it can be just a hot coffee, and there is no specific item that must be consumed. (See Kaf Hachaim Siman 155:23 and Aishel Avraham Butchatch on Shulchan Aruch Siman 155)

Rav Chaim Kanievsky Zatzal used to eat a pastry or some fruit each morning, and was not makpid to wash and eat bread.

See also Maharal in Chidushei Agados to Bava Metzia 107b for a deeper take on this matter.

971) Q: If one has a weekly Friday night minyan in his house every week, and there is no Sefer Torah there, do you say Magenn Avos, or Kaddish after vayichulu ? And if you can send source.

A: ​In a permanent minyan, that meets there every Friday night, some Poskim say that Me'eyn Sheva is recited, even without a sefer Torah there, while others require a Sefer Torah there to establish it as a shul. The prevalent custom is to say it in a permanent Friday night minyan even if there is no Sefer Torah there.

In Yerushalayim the minhag is to always say it, even in a temporary minyan. This is based on Kaballah.


See Taz Siman 268:8, Mishna Berura Siman 268 S"K 24 and 25 and Shu"t Rivevos Ephraim Vol. 1 Siman 190.

972) Q: As you know, in Eretz Yisrael Sim Shalom is said at mincha on Shabbos, but not in chutz L'aretz. How do we explain this?

A: It's based on customs that developed over the years in various congregations. Both versions are acceptable.


One reason given is that Sim Shalom has the words "Toras Chaim" in  the text, and thus we say that  Nusach whenever there is  often the  reading from the Torah, which is Shacharis and Shabbos by Mincha, and also by a fast day by Mincha.


The congregations that stick to Shalom Rav by Mincha even on Shabbos and fast days maintain that most Minchas don't have Torah readings, and thus all Minchas stick with Shalom Rav even when there is  Torah reading.

973) Q: In discussing current circumstances, someone noted that Mashiach will come one of 2 ways: (1) either with a great deal of pain and hopelessness for Yidden; or (2) if all do Teshuva, Mashiach will come earlier and without pain. Could you elabortae for us. 

A:There is a concept of Chevlei Mashiach, the pain that precedes Mashiach, similar to the labor before a birth.


The Talmud (Sanhedrin 98b) asks, what should one do to be saved from Chevlei Mashiach? The Gemara answers he should get involved in Torah and Gemilus Chasadim.


That is the only antidote. 


The more we are involved in Torah and Chesed, and other spiritual pursuits, the better off we will be.

974) Q: Do single daughters need to daven mincha before their mother lights candles on Erev Shabbos?

A: No, the bracha on the candles only deems it Shabbos for the  woman  actually  lighting and reciting the brachos over the candles, and not for other members of the household who don't light themselves. Thus they can still do melacha (until close to sunset) and can surely still daven mincha.

See Aruch Hashulchan Siman 263:15

975) Q: At a shiur I attended someone mentioned that they were told that the proper way to bow in Alainu is the same way that one bows at Modim, without bending the knees. When the Rav of our shiur came in he said that is the correct thing to do. We were very surprised to hear not to bend the knees by anachnu korim. Is this the universally accepted practice?

A: The Mogen Avrohom (Siman 132) clearly says L'chro'a U'L'Hishtachavos, to bend the knees AND bow, as not doing so is a sign of kefirah c"v, as it seems like he purposely ISN'T bowing to Hashem.


The Mishna Berura Siman (132 S"K 9) cites this too. (He actually only mentions "l'chro'a", the bending of the knees, and not the bowing; I don't think he means to not bow, rather he is citing the importance of bending the knees as well)


Another reason brought in the Emek Bracha (who the Mogen Avrohom is quoting in the first place) is that it looks like lying to say "and we are bending our knees and bowing" and then not do it.


Bottom line, it is proper to bend the knees at vanachnu Karim, and bow the head/neck at u'mishtachavim.


I see many Talmidei Chachamim do this.

For some reason many people only bow the head/neck but do not bend the knees. I am not sure why they skip the bending of the knees.

976) Q: Is it frowned upon to have an illustrated Megillas Esther on parchment? What is the source?

A: While it doesn’t make it Posul, it is definitely not L’chatchilah to read from such a Megilah, according to many Poskim. (See Elya Rabbah Siman 697:7 and Shu”t Rivevos Efraim Vol. 6 Siman Vol. 6 Siman 427).


A minority of Poskim are more lenient. (See Shu”t Zera Emes Vol. 1 Siman 100)


977) Do animals have an afterlife?

A:This is not a clear cut topic, but since you asked, will answer briefly.


The Midrash (Koheles Rabbah 3:22. See also Maseches Kallah chapters 1-2) says that animals do not have an afterlife.


In Kabalistic writings, there are some who say that there may be some sort of afterlife for them, but surely not the same as humans.


Rav Moshe Cordevero, the Ramak (Sefer HaPardes, Sha'ar HaHeichalos perek 10) disagrees and says they do not. When an animal dies its "soul" stops existing.

978) Q: Can you please tell me why Tehilim has the name of Yitzchok Avinu written as Yischok but we say Yitzchok except at a bris?

A: ​In 4 places in Tanach, our forefather Yitzchok is referred to as Yischak (with the letter Sin instead of the letter Tzadik, the way it is usually written, 100+ times).


One of these is commonly recited in the text of the bris Milah ceremony, from Tehilim 105:  אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת אֶת אַבְרָהָם וּשְׁבוּעָתוֹ לְיִשְׂחָק

In Lashon Kodesh, the letters Sin and Tzadik are often interchangeable, and indeed according to many meforshim, the word Yitzchok and the word Yischok mean exactly the same thing; he will laugh. (See Haksav v’Hakabala Shemos 25:29. See also Rav Shamshon Refael Hirsch’s commentary to Bereishis 21:6 and Malbim to Shoftim 16:25)

If so, why then is it written differently in 4 places? See Rabbeinu Bechayei Beresishis 17:19 and Bamidbar 32:3 for an approach.

Some commentaries maintain that they are not identical, and written with a Tzadik it has the connotation of mockery as well as a positive laughter, and written with a Sin it only has the meaning of laughter of Simcha, and thus Yitzchok is the name given before Mashiach comes, and the proper name Yischak will be after Mashiach comes, and the 4 times that it is written properly allude to the 4 galuyos, exiles,. that Klal Yisroel has to endure before Yischak (i.e. Klal Yisroel) can properly have total Simcha and no mockery. (The Gra in Safra d’Tznieusa end of chapter 3, also has a similar idea about the Avos each having 2 names; connoting two aspects of their/our existence.)

There’s a lot more about this in Kabalistic and linguistic writings which are beyond the scope of this forum.

979) Q: What are the mareh mekomos to not eat olives because they are kasha lishicha and what are the heterim with the mareh mekomos?

A: Talmud Horiyos 13b states one who "regularly" eats olives  will forget his learning


The Poskim have written a lot about this, and given many reasons and exclusions to this issue, such as that it only applies to Amei ha'aretz,  eating it with olive oil is OK, eating them pickled is OK, eating them less than "regularly" is OK  etc. , and practically most Poskim are not concerned about this nowadays. Interestingly, Rav Chaim Kanievsky Zatzal was makpid and did not eat olives so as not to risk forgetting any of his Torah knowledge.


Some sources that discuss this include Rabbeinu Bechayei Bereishis 34:1,  Mogen Avrohom Siman 170:19,  Mor Uketzia Siman 170, Ben Ish Chai (year 2 Parashas Pinchos  siman17,  Kaf Hachaim Siman157:27,Shu"t Salmas Chaim Siman 41, Halichos Shlomo Perek 2 page 23 in footnote.

980) Q: I have been taught (60 years ago) in Bais Yaakov that at the end of shmona esrei after going forward the three steps, we "click" our feet three times. (like kadosh kadosh kadosh) Everyone I know does it.

My granddaughter, here, in Eretz Yisrael was taught that it's a "mistake". I know it's not written in Halacha but there must be some makor to the minhag if everyone does it?

A: There is no source for this "Minhag" as far as I know.


Most likely it developed, erroneously, from the proper minhag to lift the heels during Kedusha when saying "Kadosh", "Baruch" and "Yimloch"  (See Rama Siman 125: 2 and Be'er Heitev  there Os 5).


Since we are not supposed to go back to our place after Oseh Shalom,(when davening in Shul) until kedusha begins, thus the lifting of the feet by kedusha happens soon after returning from Oseh Shalom. Most likely that turned into a "minhag" to bounce after Oseh Shalom.

981) Q: Please clarify the halacha, segula, of pouring extra wine at havdalah, if it's baal tashchis to waste such wine altogether, and how much extra to use for the segula.

A: It is an accepted minhag, brought in the Poskim (Rama, Taz, Mogen Avraham Siman 296), to spill over some wine as you fill the cup for Havdalah, as this is a Siman Bracha for the week ahead, as "Any house where wine does not flow like water, will lack bracha". The Mishna Berura (S"K 5) does say to not spill too much, but just enough to show that you are doing it for a Siman Bracha, but not to overdo it and waste too much wine.

982) Q: I see you referred to the letter  "צ" as "Tzadik". I believe the proper way to say that letter is "Tzadi".

A: While technically you are correct and the name of the letter is "Tzadi", there is a long and accepted Mesorah going back to the times of the Talmud and the Rishonim to refer to this letter as "Tzadik". Indeed, those who specifically refer to it as such have a strong basis for doing so. This is how it is specifically taught to children in many kehilos.


See   Talmud, Shabbos 104a where the Gemara connects the Tzadi to the Tzadik. Rashi to Menachos 29b dibur Hamaschil Shaatnez Getz refers to it as a Tzadik. This is found as well in the writings of the ibn Ezra, the Radvaz and other Rishonim as well.

983) Q: If one ate bread and other things during a meal and somehow inadvertently forgot that they had bread and said Al Hamichiya, what is to be done? Can or must one still recite Birkas HaMazon?

A: He needs to recite Birkas Hamazon, as according to most Poskim  the Al Hamichya  will not suffice.(certainly it doesn't satisfy his D'Rabanan obligation, and possibly not even his D'oraysa obligation). If someone else is reciting Birchas Hamazon, he should listen and have them exempt him, as according to many Poskim that will be the ideal course of action here instead of reciting it himself.


See Sha'ar HaTziyun Siman 168 Os 71. See also Elya Rabba Siman 268 S"K 18. See also Kaf Hachaim Siman  187:1 for a more lenient approach, and for some other suggestions of how to proceed. Regarding a reverse case, where one recited Birchas hamazon after eating mezonos items, see Q&A #18 here.

984) Q: Is a bracha recited when one sees Niagara Falls?

A: Some Poskim say to recite  "Oseh Maaseh Bereishis" on Niagara falls. Rav Chaim kanievsky Zatzal and others  held that no bracha is recited, as waterfalls are not listed in the Mishna as things to recite the bracha over.

985) Q: Since Parshas Zachor is considered to be Min Hatorah, and therefore the stringency to hear every word, why is there no Bracha on it ?


A: There are various answers given to this question, including the following approaches:

1)      No bracha is recited on a verbal Mitzvah that has no action associated with it.

2)      Chazal did not institute a bracha on destruction

3)      Amalek started up with us because we were lax in Torah study, and we don’t recite a blessing on something that reminds us of our sins

4)      The bracha on the Torah reading covers this Mitzvah as well

5)      It’s an constant Mitzvah, so it never begins or ends for a bracha to be inserted

6)      It’s only a partial fulfillment of the Mitzvah, as the full Mitzvah includes eradicating Amalek, which won’t happen until Mashiach’s arrival

(See Rav Chaim Falaji Zatzal in Yafeh L’Lev Vol. 3 Orach Chaim Siman 695:3, Shu"t Maharam Shick Orach Chaim Siman 336, Shu”t Rashban Orach Chaim Siman 271, Shu"t Mishneh Halachos Vol. 7 Siman 81 and Shu”t L’H oros Nossn  Vol.5 Siman 47)  

986) Q: Where I have a few foods that require separate berachos in front of me, and I make a shehakol first by accident, do I still make the other berachos, if I intended to make separate berachos?


A: If you didn't intend for the shehakol to cover the other item, you surely recite a new bracha on those items. (Even if you did intend for that shehakol to cover those items, it is possible you would still need a new bracha, as shehakol is not the correct bracha for them l'chatchila. See Mishna Berura Siman 206 S"K 9 and 10)

987) Q: What if I made a shehakol on water/drink, and then I am served fish?  Do I make a second shehakol?  What if it was in front of me, but I was thirsty and made a shehakol on the drink first - do Imake a second shehakol on the fish?

A: If you did not intend for the shehakol on the drink to cover the fish, the fish will require a new bracha. Especially if it wasn't in front of you.

988) Q: What if I make a mezonos on rice/noodles and then I am served a piece of cake for dessert, do i make another mezonos? 

A: If you had in mind for your bracha to cover all items of that bracha that come out, no new bracha will be required.  This is especially true if the first item is still in front of you.

989)  Q: If a ger (convert to Judaism) gets his certificate during sefira, does he start counting with a bracha or without?


A:  This is a much discussed question among the Poskim who debate if a convert during Sefirah is the same as a minor who became Bar Mitzvah during sefirah or not.


Practically, the Poskim rule that a convert in this case does not recite a bracha on the remainder of the sefirah counting. 


A minor, who counted with a bracha when he was a minor, would continue to count with a bracha after reaching the age of Bar Mitzvah, according to most Ashkenazic Poskim. Many Sephardic Poskim maintain he does not recite a bracha after reaching Bar Mitzvah.

See Aruch Hashulchan Siman 489:15 and Shu"t Yabia Omer Vol. 3 Siman 15, 27 and 28

990) Q: I received an aliyah on Rosh Chodesh while I was still in middle of hallel. Was I allowed to read along with the korai? (I didn't) Were my brachos kerovos livatalah?

A: We are mafsik  - ideally Bein Haperakim - for the brachos in this case, but we do not read along with the Baal Korei. See Mishna Berura Siman 66 S"K 26, regarding Krias Shema. The halacha by Halel is the same, as per Mishna Berura Siman 422 S"K 21. See also Ishei Yisroel Perek 39:47

991) Q: ​A friend of mine was telling me that his friend doesn't know Peirush Hamilos and he feels he should daven in a language he understands.So he davens on the side of the siddur where it has just the English. I told him I'm pretty sure it's wrong , and even though he doesn't understand the teitch still there's something about saying the Tefillah the way the Anshei Knesses Hagdolah set up the siddur.


What should he do?

A: While Halacha does allow this, it shouldn't be done nowadays unless really necessary,and only for someone who doesn't know how to read Hebrew, and even then, the translation has to be a precise one, and one produced by a yerei Shomayim who  keeps it loyal to the Lashon Kodesh words of Chazal. One who davens in Lashon Kodesh is Yotzei, even if he doesn't understand the  translation, besides for the first Posuk of Shema and the first Bracha of Shemona esrei.   


For Krias Shema, it definitely shouldn't be done in other languages..


See Mishna Berura Siman 62 S"K 3. See also Aruch Hashulchan Siman 62:5 and Siman 101 and 185  and  Igros Moshe Orach Chaim Vol. 4 Siman 70:4

For halacha L'maaseh he should discuss his situation with his Rav.

992) Q: ​Do you know the source for "Tehilla L'david" and other pesukim added in some bentchers after Shir Hamaalos' before bentching? It seems some people say it and others don't and I was wondering where it comes from?

A: It is quoted in the  Kaf Hachaim Siman 157:22


It is kabalistic in nature, as it is also quoted by Rav Chaim Vital in Sha'ar Hamitzvos Parashas Eikev,  to say  these (and other) pesukim then to thwart the Sitra Achra who lingers at the table.

993) Q: What is the halacha regarding  girls wearing socks and their legs are exposed  above the ankle and below the knee - Is that okay for girls ages 11 and up  to walk around wearing ankle socks that just cover the ankle and down below the ankle and have the part between ankle and knee exposed?

A: The "Shok" of a woman is deemed "Ervah" and must be covered in order to be deemed properly Tzanua (Talmud Brachos 24b) , and thus if the "Shok" is not covered, men may not recite Brachos or learn Torah in its presence or gaze at that area,  and the woman in question is deemed not dressed B'Tznius.


There is a question among the Poskim as to what the "Shok" is. 


Many Poskim consider the entire leg - from the thigh down to the toes - as the "Shok".  


Other Poskim maintain that the "Shok" only reaches down to the ankle, but does not include the ankle and below. 


Some Poskim rule even more leniently and consider the "Shok" from the thighs to the knees, and deem anything from the knees and below as not needing to be covered M'Ikar Hadin providing that the Torah-observant society where this woman resides, does not cover those parts. (as if the minhag is to cover it, it becomes required due to "Das Yehudis" even if not mandated by Halacha per se)

Practically, most contemporary Poskim  are stringent and require a covering on the entire foot.(As far as what  that covering  needs to be - if it needs to be a skirt, or if tights or socks suffice - each community should follow the standards put in place by their own Rabbanim)


Obviously, every woman should consult her own Rav and follow the minhag of the Torah-observant society she is part of, as long as they are abiding by the rulings of their Rabbanim.  If there are people who disregard the rulings of the Rabbanim, and act in a more lenient manner, this does not make the society a place where it is now OK to  not follow the ruling of the Rabbanim, and anyone who does so, besides for their own sin, will also have to give a din V'cheshbon for causing others to sin R"L.


To do more research into this topic, here are some sources for you to  study:  Pri Megadim; Mishbetzos Zahav Siman 75:1,  Chayei Adam Klal 4:2, Mishna Berura siman 75 S"K 2, Shu"t Minchas Yitzchok Vol. 6 Siman 10,  Shu"t Igros Moshe Even HaEzer Vol. 4 Siman 100, Shu"t Divrei Yatziv Siman 37, Shu"t Be'er Moshe Vol. 8 Siman 1, Kovetz Teshuvos from Rav Elyashiv Vol 1 Siman 13, Shu"t Shevet Haleivi Vol. 1 siman1; Vol.3 Siman 91, Shu"t Az Nidberu Vol. 7 Siman 3. see also  Piskei Teshuvos Siman 75 footnote 26

994) Q: The Tur and Shulchan Aruch (siman 51) do not require that one say Mizmor L’Sodah standing. Even the Mishna Berura does not mention standing. My question is where did the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch derive the requirement for standing - and many sidurim note to say it standing.

A: Indeed, the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch (Siman 14:4) rules to say it standing - and B'Simcha, with joy. This is an old discussion among the Poskim. Many say to stand, as the Korban Todah was brought standing. This was also the ruling of the Shulchan Aruch HaRav.


The Arizal said to specifically sit, for kabalistic reasons.  


The long-standing minhag in Ashkenaz was indeed to stand.  Sephardim do not stand.


See Sha'arei Teshuva Siman 51 Os 9 and Kaf Hachaim Siman 51 Os 48.  See also Shu"t Rivevos efraim Vol.   4 Siman 22.


Each individual should follow their accepted custom.

995) Q: Is it true that one may only say the brocha for Hamapil at least 30 minutes before alos Hashachar to assure that you slept at least 30 minutes before alos?

A: If one will fall asleep before Alos Hashachar (dawn), he may recite Hamapil, even if it's less than 30 minutes to Alos. However, if he is concerned that he may not fall asleep until after it is already Alos, he should indeed not recite Hamaoil at that point. See Biur Halacha Siman 239:1

996) Q: Is it only a custom to stand for Birchos Hatorah or it deemed a birchas Hamitzvah which we are required to stand up for?

A: The Beis Yosef (Siman 8) based on the Talmud Yerushalmi rules that Birchos Hamitzvos should be said while standing. Since Birchos HaTorah is considered a bracha on a Mitzvah, presumably it would be included in this Halacha. Some Poskim (including the Shulchan Aruch HaRav Siman 8:3) rule this way, and many people do indeed follow this custom to stand for Birchos Hatorah. (See Shu"t Yaskil Avdi Vol. 8 Siman 3:3 that L'chatchilah they should be recited while standing. He also brings Kabalistic sources for this being important.)


However, many Poskim maintain that only for Mitzvos that need to be done standing ( like Shofar, Halel) do we need to recite their Bracha while standing as well. However, for Mitzvos that may be done while sitting ( e.g. Mikra Megila) we do not require standing for the bracha either.  Thus since nowadays we do not need to stand while learning Torah, we may also recite the brachos while sitting (See Talmud  Megilah 21a and Pnei Yehoshua there. This is also the psak of the Pri Megadim Peri Megadim Siman 432; Mishbetzos zahav 3 and Aruch Hashulchan Siman 47:7. See also Shu"t  Yechaveh Da'as Vol. 5 Siman 4 where Rav Ovadia Yosef Zatzal rules this way, and cites the  Rama M'Pano Siman 102:7, and others ruling this way as well)


Bottom line: There is definitely value in reciting them while standing, but it is not required, according to many Poskim. 

997) Q: After eating a meat meal, how long should I wait before eating fish? Does it matter if I ate chicken and not meat?

A: There is no need to wait between fish and meat  , or between meat and fish.


All that is necessary is to drink something between the 2 (See Sha'ar Hatziyun Siman 173:2 quoting the Chochmas Adam 68:1)

(Some people avoid water, and instead use whiskey or  wine; see Q&A #852 here for more about this)


Some Poskim say to eat something parve as well, in addition to the drink. if you dip a food into a drink, and eat that, that suffices for food & drink. (See Mishna Berura Siman 173 S"K 4 quoting the Rama Yoreh Deah Siman 116: 3. See also commentary of the Perisha there Os 23)

998) Q: Am I allowed to light a yahrzeit candle - to commemorate the memory of a loved one - on the second night of Yom Tov from an existing candle?

A: It is best to light a yahrzeit or Yizkor candle before Yom Tov (Use a 2 or 3 day candle if necessary).


If it was not lit before Yom Tov it is best to light it in a Shul or in a room in the home where you will benefit from its light.


Athough some allow lighting it in any case just as an honor for the deceased, as this is deemed a Mitzvah, some Poskim are more stringent. (See Biur Halacha Siman 514 Dibur hamaschil Ner Shel Batalah. See also  Kitzur Shulchan Aruchj Siman 98:1 and Kaf Hachaim Siman 514:79)

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