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1) The Av (primary) Melacha Dosh, a Melacha closely related to Borer, literally means to thresh and separate something from its source.

In the Mishkan, wheat kernels were extracted from the chaff, the hard casing around the kernel which is inedible for humans, in order to then produce flour for use in Menachos offerings as well as to produce the loaves of bread to place in the Shulchan as well as for other Avodos.

The Toladah (extension) of Dosh is the Melacha of Sechita, which literally means to squeeze something from its source.

2) The prohibition of Dosh applies to fruits that are normally threshed in the field and not later on when ready for consumption.

Fruits that are normally separated from their hull immediately prior to eating are not subject to this Melacha. (See Eglei Tal, Maleches Dosh; 5; S”K 11)

Thus, for example, grapes may be removed from their stems on Shabbos (immediately before being consumed, in order to avoid Borer) and are not subject to the Melacha of Dosh.

Likewise, peanuts and almonds may be cracked open and the nut removed from the shell, immediately before consumption. (See Shmiras Shabbos K’Hilchasa Perek 3 footnote 92. See also Shu”t Be’er Moshe Vol. 1 Siman 38 and Shu”t Minchas Yitzchak Vol. 3 Siman 32. There are Poskim, based on  the Shulchan Aruch HaRav Siman 319:9, that are stringent, and thus some people use a Shinui when cracking open nuts.)

However, the outer hull of an almond (which protects the inner shell) which is usually removed before reaching the consumer may not be removed on Shabbos. (See Rama Siman 319:6 and Mishna Berura S”K 24)


1) Legumes may not be removed from their shells on Shabbos, unless the shell itself is edible, as the Melacha of Dosh applies only when removing an edible component from a non edible component.

Thus, for example, peas may only be removed from their pod on Shabbos if the pod can also be eaten. (Of course, even when edible it may only be removed immediately before eating as not to transgress Borer)

2) It is permissible to remove a banana from a bunch of bananas, as doing so does not remove a food from a nonfood component and thus this isn’t subject to the prohibition of Dosh.

The same applies to any branch containing fruit that was cut off before Shabbos; the fruit may be removed from this [unattached] branch on Shabbos and eaten, and isn’t subject to the prohibition of Dosh. (See Rama Siman 336:8)


1) Sechitah, the act of squeezing and extracting liquids from a fruit (or other items), is a Toladah (subcategory) of the Av Melacha (primary) of Dosh, and is in many cases biblically prohibited.

2) There are three levels of Sechitah:

a- Squeezing olives and grapes, whose byproducts – olive oil and wine – are a) significant liquids, b) are normally squeezed and c) additionally their prime use is in the liquid form.  Extracting these juices is biblically prohibited. (See Shulchan Aruch Siman 320:1) (Other commonly squeezed fruits may fall into this category as well as we shall discuss in the next few days B’Ezras Hashem.)

b- Squeezing Strawberries and Pomegranates and any other fruits and vegetables which are normal to sometimes squeeze in order to consume their juices, even though doing this is not their primary use.Extracting these juices is a rabbinic prohibition. (See Mishna Berura Siman 320:5)

c- Squeezing fruits and vegetables which are not commonly squeezed. It is permitted to squeeze such items on Shabbos.





1) All Poskim agree that it is forbidden to squeeze Oranges and Grapefruits on Shabbos.

However, there is a debate amongst the Poskim if doing so is a biblical transgression or a rabbinical transgression.

The debate is based on the reasoning for the biblical prohibition to squeeze olives and grapes.

According to some Rishonim (including Rashi to Shabbos 145a Dibur Hamaschil Dvar Torah) the primary reason for olives and grapes being a biblical prohibition is due to the fact that they are normally squeezed. Thus, any fruits which are normally squeezed, such as oranges and grapefruits, will be just as biblically prohibited as olives and grapes. (See also Chazon Ish Siman 33:5 Dibur Hamaschil  V’Henei Hanischatim and Siman 55:4)

2) Other Rishonim, however, (including the Ran Shabbos 61a in the Dafei HaRif and quoted in introduction of Pri Megadim to Siman 320) maintain that the primary reason for the biblical prohibition to squeeze olives and grapes is that only the juices of these two fruits are considered “juice” and are significant to the point that juicing these fruits and producing “wine and olive oil” is considered a “step up” in their status from a mere “grape or olive”.

Thus, oranges and grapefruits, although normally squeezed, will still be in the category of strawberries and pomegranates etc. and be prohibited only rabinically.


1) It is forbidden to squeeze lemons directly into an empty glass or into a glass containing liquid. (See Mishna Berura Siman 320:22. We shall discuss squeezing into food more in detail starting tomorrow B’Ezras Hashem)

2) Pickled vegetables, which absorbed the liquid in which they were pickled, may be squeezed if the purpose of squeezing is to rid the vegetable of the excess liquid.(See Shulchan Aruch Siman 320:7)

However, if the purpose of the squeezing is so that you can drink the juice or otherwise use it as a dip for your bread, it is prohibited to squeeze them [into an empty plate]. (See Shulchan Aruch ibid. and Biur Halacha Dibur Hamaschil U’LeRabbeinu Chananel)

The same guidelines apply to food that was fried in excess oil or cooked in excess gravy and one wants to squeeze out the extra oil or gravy before eating. (Unless one is finicky and absolutely cannot eat the food unless the excess oil or gravy is removed, then according to many Poskim it is prohibited for him to squeeze out the oil or gravy at all.)


(Double Portion L’Kavod Shabbos Kodesh)

Halachos for Erev Shabbos Kodesh

1) According to most Poskim it is permitted to squeeze fruits and vegetables if their juices are immediately absorbed directly into a food, as the prohibition of Sechitah is  to extract liquid from a food, and this juice that is being absorbed by the food is considered “food”  and not seen as a liquid. (See Talmud Shabbos 144b and Shulchan Aruch Siman 320:4)

According to a minority of Poskim (Based on the opinion of Rabbeinu Chananel quoted in Shu”t HaRosh Klal 22:1 and in Mishna Berura Siman 320:30) even squeezing into a food is prohibited.

One who is stringent in regard to this will be blessed. (Ibid.)

2) This call for stringency, according to many Poskim, is only relevant in regard to squeezing those fruits which are biblically prohibited (i.e. olives and grapes, and perhaps oranges and other fruits that are usually squeezed, as we discussed a few days ago) (See Chayei Adam Klal 14:3)


1) Squeezing lemons into a food is permitted, and the aforementioned stringency (of being concerned for the opinion of Rabbeinu Chananel) does not need to be applied as there are additional leniencies that apply to lemons that can be relied upon. (See Biur Halacha Siman 320:6 Dibur Hamaschil  V’Lischot Limons)

2) The permissibility for fruits and vegetables to be squeezed directly into a food applies only if all of the juice gets absorbed, or is otherwise subordinated to or used to enhance the food.

However, if some of the juice will remain alone in the plate and won’t become part of the food or in any way enhance the consumption of the food, it is prohibited to squeeze the fruit. (See Chazon Ish Siman 56:1.)

Squeezing a lemon onto a piece of fish is permitted, as even though some of the lemon juice runs off onto the plate, this is considered the normal way to eat and all  the juice is considered to be enhancing the food. (See Sefer Orchos Shabbos page 195 footnote 26)





1) is permissible to squeeze a lemon into a vegetable salad, even though some of the juice will sink to the bottom and not be totally absorbed into the vegetables.

The same applies for squeezing lemons (and oranges according to opinions other than Rabbeinu Chananel) into grated carrots, Cole slaw and similar foods; as long as most of the juice is absorbed into the food. (See Shulchan Aruch HaRav Siman 505:2)

2) The permissibility of squeezing fruits into food applies only if it is being squeezed straight into the food.

However, it is prohibited to squeeze into a spoon or other empty utensil even if the intention is to then pour it from the spoon directly into a food. (See Mishna Berura Siman 320:18)


1) The leniency of squeezing fruits and vegetables into food applies only to foods and not to liquids.

Thus, for example, it is prohibited to squeeze a lemon into a glass of tea or cola on Shabbos.

2) There is a debate amongst the Poskim if one, who wants to add lemon to their drink, may squeeze a lemon onto a spoonful of sugar and then add the mixture into the tea. (The Mishna Berura Siman 320:22 allows this while the Chazon Ish Siman 56:7 prohibits it. The Sha’ar HaTziyun 320:27 quotes the Chayei Adam who is doubtful regarding the validity of this Heter. )

Even the Poskim that allow this, only allow it provided that a majority of the juice gets absorbed into the sugar.





1) The Poskim debate whether one may hold a fruit and suck its juice out on Shabbos.

Some Poskim rule that doing so violates the prohibition of Sechitah and they do not differentiate between squeezing and sucking as both actions have the same outcome: extracting the juice from the fruit, a prohibited action.

Other Poskim, however, rule that sucking out the juice is not the same as squeezing because a) this is not the normal way to extract juices from fruit and thus it was never prohibited by the Chachamim, and furthermore, b) sucking out the juice of a fruit is considered “eating” and not “drinking” and thus not a part of the prohibition of Sechitah. (See Rama Siman 320:1. See also commentary of Rav Akiva Eiger to Shulchan Aruch Siman 202:8 where he brings opinions that sucking out the juice of a fruit is deemed “eating” and the Bracha recited over this “juice” would be Borei Pri Ha’eitz. See also Kaf HaChaim Siman 202:3)

The Mishna Berura (Siman 320:12) rules stringently for grapes and olives and leniently for other fruits and vegetables.

2) The above dispute applies only when the actual fruit is not placed entirely in the mouth.

All agree that if the fruit was placed entirely in the mouth that it is considered “eating” and there is no prohibition of Sechitah even though the juices are extracted and enjoyed while chewing. (Mishna Berura ibid. And of course all agree here that the Bracha on this fruit is Borei Pri Ha’eitz. See Kaf HaChaim ibid.)


1) The Melacha of Sechitah, squeezing, applies equally to foods that contain their own juices as well as to foods that do not have their own juices but have absorbed in them other liquids.

For example, a piece of bread which was dipped into wine or a piece of meat which is filled with gravy may not be squeezed to release the wine or gravy which was absorbed into it [if being done to consume the wine or gravy]. (Shulchan Aruch Siman 320:7)

However, to suck the wine or gravy out of the bread or meat is permissible. (See Mishna Berura Siman 320:11)

2) It is prohibited to squash an unpeeled orange in order to soften the inside for the purposes of inserting a straw into the orange to drink its juice. (See Sefer Orchos Shabbos page 198 footnote 39)


1) We learned that it is prohibited to deliberately squeeze fruits that are normally squeezed for their juices, on Shabbos.

However, if the juices oozed out on their own, it depends on the type of fruit and sometimes also on the intent of their use, as follows:

The juice of grapes or olives that oozed out on its own may not be consumed on Shabbos. The reason Chazal prohibited this is due to the fact that they were concerned that if it was allowed, people would then come to deliberately squeeze them, and thus transgress a biblical prohibition. (Shulchan Aruch Siman 320:1)

Furthermore, these juices that oozed out on their own are Muktzeh and may not be handled on Shabbos. (See Shulchan Aruch HaRav Siman 305:32 and Shu”t Rav Akiva Eiger Siman 5 for more about this)

The above Halacha applies even if the person’s intent when purchasing the grapes and olives were to eat them and not to squeeze them for their juices.

2) The juice of other fruits, which are sometimes squeezed for their juices, which oozed out on their own, would depend on the intent for which they were purchased.

If they were purchased for the purpose of eating, then the juices that oozed out on their own may be consumed on Shabbos.

However, if they were purchased for the purpose of juicing, their juices that oozed out may not be consumed and are Muktzeh on Shabbos. (Shulchan Aruch ibid.)


(Double Portion L’Kavod Shabbos Kodesh)

Halachos for Erev Shabbos Kodesh

1) One who cuts oranges, grapefruits and similar fruits for purposes of a fruit salad, and as a result of preparing the salad some juice from the fruits gathered at the bottom of the plate, that juice may be consumed, and we don’t consider the cutting of the fruit as “squeezing”. (See Sefer Orchos Shabbos page 199 footnote 43)

Likewise, a bowl of fruit salad that was finished, and on the bottom of the bowl remains a mixture of juices from those fruits, the juice may be consumed, even if there were grapes in the salad. (Sefer Orchos Shabbos page 200 footnote 44)

2) It is permissible to eat a halved grapefruit with a spoon, even though the spoon will inevitably squeeze some of the juice. (Ruling of HaRav Shlomo Zalmen Auerbach Zatzal quoted in Shmiras Shabbos K’Hilchaso Perek 5 footnote 42)

Moreover, when the grapefruit is finished, it is permissible to drink the leftover juice.

However, if the express intent of doing this is to drink the juice it is prohibited. (ibid.)





1) It is permissible to place a wedge of lemon into a hot glass of tea (in a Kli Shlishi) or into a glass of cola, even though the juices of the lemon will ooze out and mix with the tea or cola and give it a taste of lemon.

The reason for this is that the Gezeira against drinking juices that oozed out of their own accord applies only when they ooze out into an empty utensil, and not when they  go into another drink.(See Chazon Ish Siman 52:19)

2) However, it is prohibited to deliberately squeeze the lemon into the tea as we learned earlier.

Additionally, it is prohibited to press the lemon onto the side of the glass (as is commonly done in restaurants etc.) as doing so will inevitably squeeze it a bit.


1) Milking a cow is a Toladah of Dosh, as the milk is being separated from its source where it was produced, and is forbidden on Shabbos. (See Rambam Hilchos Shabbos Perek 8 Halacha 10)

Drinking milk that was milked on Shabbos is prohibited for anyone on that Shabbos.(Shulchan Aruch Siman 305:20)

The person who transgressed the prohibition of milking the cow, if done deliberately, may not drink the milk forever.

2) However, since it is painful for a cow not to be milked for an entire day, and may cause her harm and thus be a violation of Tza’ar Baalei Chaim, a non-Jew may be asked to milk the cow on Shabbos. (Shulchan Aruch ibid.)


1) Milk that is milked on Shabbos is Muktzeh and may not be moved or handled. (See Shulchan Aruch HaRav Siman 305:32 and Shu”t Rav Akiva Eiger Siman 5. See also Chazon Ish Siman 44:5)

2) However, a non-Jew may be asked to put it in the refrigerator in order to prevent it from spoiling. (See Shulchan Aruch HaRav ibid. The reason being that this is a Shvus D’Shvus which is permitted in cases of monetary loss.)

If no non-Jew is available, some Poskim allow it to be done by a Jew, due to Tza’ar Baalei Chaim, provided that the milk is discarded. (See Chazon Ish Siman 56:4)

Halachos for Tuesday, May 24 2011

1) It is prohibited, on Shabbos,  for a woman to extract her milk into a utensil for the purposes of feeding it to her infant child, unless doing so for the health of the child (Pikuach Nefesh). (Shulchan Aruch Siman 328:34)

However, it is permitted for her to extract the milk directly into the mouth of the child in order to get him to latch on and start nursing. (Shulchan Aruch Siman 328:35. See Sha’arei Tziyun Os 81 where he discusses the reasons for this being permitted.)

2) If a woman is in pain due to excessive milk, she may extract it on Shabbos, provided it goes to waste and isn’t gathered for a later feeding of her child. (Shulchan Aruch Siman 330:8 and Mishna Berura S”K 32)

Likewise, if she isn’t in pain but is doing this in order to ensure that she will be able to nurse properly at a later time it is permissible [even if the child already eats other foods] provided the milk goes to waste. (Ruling of Rav Shlomo Zalmen Auerbach Zatzal quoted in Sefer M’Or HaShabbos Vol. 1 letter 11:10)





1) A woman who is extracting milk (in a permissible situation as we discussed yesterday) may use a manual breast pump for this purpose.

However, the utensil that the milk is being pumped into should preferably  have soap, or another non edible and non Muktzeh  substance in it, to ensure that the milk being pumped will be unfit for feeding the child (as some Poskim require that not only must it be discarded, it may never be useable in the first place even if the intention is to discard in a few moments.)

Alternatively, though not always practical, the milk that is pumped can go directly into a sink and down the drain.

2) An electric breast pump may not be used in the normal manner, and preferably should be avoided altogether.

In cases of extreme necessity when a manual pump is not sufficient, as determined by a Rav, an electric pump may be used in an indirect way (Grama) as follows:

The pump can be set on a timer to go on and off at regular intervals.

The part of the pump that attaches to the woman must be put in place when the pump is off.

Thus, when the pump turns on the milk will be extracted automatically without any action on the woman’s part; she may not even hold onto the cup while it is pumping, though it may be tied on with a string before the pump turns on. (See Chazon Ish Siman 38:4)





1) Ice or snow may not be crushed and turned into water on Shabbos. (Shulchan Aruch Siman 320:9)

According to some Rishonim (including the Rambam Hilchos Shabbos Perek 21:13) the reason for this prohibition is that doing so is [like] Sechitah ; extracting water from ice is like extracting juice from fruits. (Other Rishonim, although they agree it is prohibited, maintain that the reason is not due to Sechitah, rather due to Molid or Nolad, Melachos which we shall discuss more at length B’Ezras Hashem when we get to Hilchos Muktzeh)

2) However, it is permissible to place ice into a glass of water or other liquid, even though the ice will melt, as this is happening by itself and isn’t being done deliberately with your hands. (Shulchan Aruch ibid.)

Some Poskim even allow crushing the ice deliberately with your hands, if it is being done while the ice is in the glass of water or other liquid. (See Mishna Berura Siman 320:34)

L’Chatchila, however, it is best to be stringent with this. (See Biur Halacha Siman 320:11 Dibur Hamaschil Yizaher)





(Double Portion L’Kavod Shabbos Kodesh)

Halachos for Erev Shabbos Kodesh

1) One who has a glass of frozen water or other liquid should not place it near a fire or other heat source [in a place where it cannot reach Yad Soledes Bo] in order to thaw the ice, as many Poskim regard doing this as crushing the ice with your hands.(Rama Siman 318:16)

In cases of great necessity (e.g. the water is needed for a non-deathly ill person or an infant) this can be done and we can rely on the Poskim that consider doing this as a causative action (Grama) and thus not prohibited. (Shulchan Aruch Siman 318:16)

2)However, if  the proximity of the ice to the heat source is such that it would eventually reach the temperature of Yad Soledes Bo if left there for the duration of Shabbos, it is prohibited even in cases of great necessity (Besides Pikuach Nefesh of course), due to the prohibition of Bishul, cooking. (See Mishna Berura Siman 258:2)

B’dieved, if this ice was placed near the heat source and it thawed, it is permissible to drink the liquid. (Mishna Berura Siman 318:107)





1)If a few ice cubes were placed in an empty bowl and they melted and turned into water, according to many  Poskim it is permitted  to drink the water, as no action was done to cause them to melt. (Mishna Berura Siman 318:107 quoting the Shulchan Aruch HaRav. See also Shu”t Shevet Haleivi Vol. 7 Siman40)

Some Poskim, however, rule that it is best to avoid drinking this water unless in cases of great necessity. (HaRav Shlomo Zalmen Auerbach Zatzal quoted in Shmiras Shabbos K’Hilchaso Perek 10:3)

2) In cases of necessity for use on Shabbos, it is permitted to remove a frozen juice or dessert from the freezer and allow them to sit at room temperature until they thaw and melt. (as even the Poskim who prohibit doing this, agree that if it was done it may be eaten. Thus, in cases of necessity L’Kavod Shabbos we rule that it may be done L’Chatchila, even according to them as long as it wasn’t placed near a fire or other heat source.)





1) Congealed fish gel that was removed from the refrigerator and allowed to thaw in room temparature and became liquid on its own, may be eaten. (See Shmiras Shabbos K’Hilchaso Perek 1 footnote 109 in the name of HaRav Shlomo Zalmen Auerbach Zatzal that this is true according to all Rishonim, as there is no concern of Nolad here)

2) In cases of great necessity it is permissible to place the congealed fish gel near a fire or heat source to aid in its thawing, provided it isn’t placed close enough that it would be able to reach  Yad Soledes Bo if left there for the entire Shabbos. (See Shmiras Shabbos K’Hilchaso Perek 1:37)





1) One who wants to add honey to a glass of tea or other liquid may do so, as even though it will mix with the liquid and become liquefied, it is happening by itself and not being done with your hands. (See Mishna Berura Siman 318:118)

However, the honey should not be stirred into the drink with a spoon, as doing so is similar to crushing ice with your hands. (See Sha’ar HaTziyun Siman 318:146 that even though it is being done in the liquid, it is best to be stringent.)

Once the honey has totally liquefied of its own accord, the drink may then be stirred.

2) If the tea to which the [raw] honey is being added is hot (beyond Yad Soledes Bo) it is best that the tea be in a Kli Shlishi, as if it is only in a Kli Sheini, according to many Poskim, it is still prohibited due to the Gezeira of “Mechzi K’Mevashel” as we discussed when we learned Hilchos Bishul. (See Mishna Berura Siman 318:34 and Chazon Ish Orach Chaim Siman 52:19)


1) It is permitted to walk upon snow on Shabbos and there is no need to be concerned about any snow that gets crushed and thus turns into water due to your walking on it.  (Shulchan Aruch Siman 320:13)

The two reasons for not being concerned about this are a) It isn’t the person’s intention to crush the snow and b) it is all but impossible to be careful from stepping on snow when there is a snow storm; thus Chazal did not enact the Gezeira in regard to walking on snow. (See Mishna Berura Siman 320:39)

2) It is permitted to break a layer of ice in order to reach water that is under it, and there is no need to be concerned that some of the ice that is being broken may itself turn into water, as the prohibition of crushing ice was only enacted when the purpose of crushing the ice was to turn it into water. (Shulchan Aruch Siman 320:10 and Mishna Berura S”K 36)

It is permitted to spread salt on top of icy surfaces on Shabbos in order to melt it, provided it is being done to prevent people from Chas V’shalom slipping on the ice and injuring themselves. (See Shmiras Shabbos K’Hilchaso Perek 25 footnote 49)

Tam V’Nishlam Hilchos Dosh B’Rov Shevach L’Keil Borei Olam.

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